Gardens can be divided into objectives or purposes:
• Climate gardening (heat mitigation, stormwater absorption, drought-flood buffer, shade)
• Biodiversity gardening (habitat for pollinators and other wildlife)
• Food gardening (food, herbs, medicine for humans)
• Gardening for ornamental purposes only.
The last type of gardening — strictly ornamental — has gotten humanity into a lot of trouble.
Fortunately, any of the other types of garden can also provide beauty.
Another bit of good news is that the various types of garden can mix or overlap. For example, a food/medicinal garden for humans can also provide forage and habitat for pollinators and other wildlife. Native trees and shrubs can provide shade for tender annual vegetables. And, even in a native-plant garden designed strictly to support wildlife biodiversity, some of the plants are most likely edible to humans.
And, all of the above types of garden can serve to reduce heat, absorb stormwater, and mitigate drought-flood extremes.
All while giving sanctuary, education, and joy to the human visitors.